18 nov. 2011

Carl Maria von Weber



1786 - S–a născut Carl Maria von Weber, compozitor, dirijor, pianist, considerat parintele operei romantice germane (opera „Der Freischutz”, 1821).







Carl Maria von Weber (n. 18 noiembrie 1786, Eutin - d. 5 iunie 1826, Londra) a fost un compozitor german, creatorul operei romantice germane.
Weber și-a făcut educația muzicală în Salzburg sub îndrumarea lui Michael Haydn. La vârsta de numai 13 ani, în anul 1798, pe când locuia la München în casa de pe Sendlingerstraße 23, Weber a compus prima sa operă, Die Macht der Liebe und des Weins ("Forța dragostei și a vinului"), operă între timp dispărută. Și-a desăvârșit cunoștințele prin contactul cu viața muzicală din diferite orașe, în care a ocupat diverse funcții: Kapellmeister în Breslau, director muzical al operei din Praga, apoi al operei din Dresda. Pianist și dirijor remarcabil, Weber s-a afirmat totodată în domeniul teatrului muzical, fiind - pentru spațiul de cultură germană - cel mai important compozitor de opere înainte de Richard Wagner și creatorul operei romantice. Cele mai cunoscute dintre cele opt opere ale sale, "Freischütz"(1821), "Euryanthe" (1823) și "Oberon" (1826), au influențat creația succesorilor săi în acest gen. Atmosfera evocatoare, coloritul feeric, conturarea precisă a caracterelor, construcția de ansamblu și sugestivitatea tratării orchestrale conferă operelor sale un farmec deosebit. Weber a mai compus și două simfonii, uverturi, concerte pentru diverse instrumente și orchestră (pian, fagot, clarinet), sonate și piese pentru pian (celebra "Invitație la dans", orchestrată mai târziu de Hector Berlioz).





Opera sa componistică


Opere


Die Macht der Liebe und des Weins, J. Anh. 6, 1798-9, lost;
Das Waldmädchen, (Das stumme Waldmädchen), J. Anh. 1, 1800, frags; libretto by C. von Steinsberg; rev. as Silvana (1810)
Peter Schmoll und seine Nachbarn, J. 8, 1802; libretto by Josef Türk
Rübezahl, J. 44-6, 1804-5; libretto by J.G. Rhode; 3 nos. survive; ov. rev. 1811 as Der Beherrscher der Geister'
Silvana, J. 87, 1810; libretto by Franz Karl Hiemer
Abu Hassan, 1811; libretto by Franz Karl Hiemer
Der Freischütz op.77 J.277, 1821; libretto by Johann Friedrich Kind
Euryanthe op.81 J.291, 1823; libretto by Helmina von Chézy
Oberon or The Elf Kings Oath J.306, 1826; libretto by James Robinson Planché
Die drei Pintos J. Anh. 5, 1821, inc; libretto by Theodore Hell; new libretto by Carl von Weber (the composer's grandson) and Gustav Mahler; score completed by Mahler based on surviving sketches and new music based on little-known pieces by Weber.


Compozitorul Carl Maria von Weber


Muzică bisericească


Missa sancta No. 1 in Eb J.224 (1818)
Missa sancta No. 2 in G op.76 J.251 (1818-19)


Piese vocale cu acompaniament orchestral


Cantata Der erste Ton for chorus and orchestra op.14 J.58 (1808 / revised 1810)
Recitative and rondo Il momento s'avvicina for soprano and orchestra op.16 J.93 (1810)
Hymn In seiner Ordnung schafft der Herr for soloists, chorus and orchestra op.36 J.154 (1812)
Cantata Kampf und Sieg for soloists, chorus and orchestra op.44 J.190 (1815)
Scene and Aria of Atalia Misera me! for soprano and orchestra op.50 J.121 (1811)
Jubel-Cantata for the 50th royal jubilee of King Friedrich August I of Saxony for soloist, chorus and orchestra op.58 J.244 (1818)





Concerte


Piano concerto No. 1 in C major op. 11 J.98 (1810)
Piano concerto No. 2 in E flat major op. 32 J.155 (1812)
Bassoon concerto in F major op. 75 J.127 (1811 / revised 1822)
Clarinet concerto No. 1 in F minor op. 73 J.114 (1811)
Clarinet concerto No. 2 in E flat major, Opus 74 J.118 (1811)
Grand pot-pourri for cello and orchestra in D major op. 20 J.64 (1808)
Concertino for clarinet and orchestra in C minor/E flat major, op. 26 J.109 (1811)
Konzertstück for horn and orchestra in E minor op. 45 J.188 (1815)
Konzertstück for piano and orchestra in F minor op. 79 J.282 (1821)
Romanza siciliana for flute and orchestra J.47 (1805)
Six variations on the theme A Schüsserl und a Reind'rl for viola and orchestra J.49 (1800 / revised 1806)
Andante and rondo Hungarian for die viola and orchestra J.79 (1809)
Variations for cello and orchestra in D minor J.94 (1810)
Adagio and rondo for harmonichord and orchestra in F major J.115 (1811)
Andante and rondo Hungarian (Andante e Rondo Ongarese) for bassoon and orchestra in C minor op. 35 J.158 (1813) revised as J.79



 
The grave of Carl Maria von Weber on the old Catholic cemetery in Dresden

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